Artichoke plants (Cynara scolymus) are herbaceous perennials that are members of the Asteraceae family, a group that includes thistles, dandelions, and sunflowers. They are short-lived perennials in warmer climates but are normally grown as annuals in cooler regions. Artichokes are usually grown for the edible flower buds, which are harvested before the flowers open.
Although still extremely popular in their native Mediterranean region, artichokes are not commonly grown in the U.S.—California is the only state with a large commercial artichoke industry. There, the peak growing season is from March to May, but if you plant some at home, you can have artichokes maturing throughout the summer. Make sure you have space, though; these are very large plants.
The leaves of artichokes are silver-green in color with a long, arching shape. Although they look soft, the leaves can be quite prickly. The stems of the plant are thick and fleshy. The flower buds are the parts that are sold in produce aisles. At the base of the bud is the tender, flavorful artichoke "heart." If allowed to blossom on the plant, artichoke flowers open into large, dome- or muff-shaped purple thistles that are surprisingly fragrant.
Artichokes are planted at different times of the year, depending on the climate. Where they are grown as annuals, they must be planted in spring. In warmer zones where they survive as perennials, they are often planted as seeds in late summer or as young plants (or transplants) in mid-autumn. They typically need 85 to 100 days to reach harvest.
|Botanical Name||Cynara scolymus|
|Common Name||Artichoke, globe artichoke, French artichoke, green artichoke|
|Plant Type||Herbaceous perennial|
|Mature Size||3 to 6 feet tall, 4 to 5 feet wide|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun|
|Soil Type||Light, fertile, well-drained|
|Soil pH||Neutral (6.5 to 7.5)|
|Bloom Time||Late summer, early fall|
|Hardiness Zones||7 to 11 (USDA)|
|Native Area||Southern Mediterranean regions|
How to Plant Artichokes
Because artichokes often take two years to flower, they are typically sold as container plants in their second year, or as established root crowns. They become large plants and should be spaced at least 4 feet apart—6 feet is even better. Plants grown as annuals, or where the tops will be killed back by frost, will not get as large and can be spaced a little closer. Harvest the buds for eating before they develop into thistle flowers. If you are growing them as annuals, cut them down to ground level after the flowers have faded, and cover them with mulch for the winter.
Artichokes are often described as architectural plants, and one look at a tall, branching specimen will tell you why. Since few animals attack artichokes, don't be afraid to plant them in your ornamental borders as edible landscaping. You can still harvest them at will, but the stately plants and textural leaves will add visual interest throughout the season.
Artichoke plants should produce for about three to five years and will develop side shoots at their bases. At this time, you can lift, divide, and replant the new shoots.
Artichokes grow best in full sun. They can tolerate some shade, but the flower buds will suffer somewhat.
Artichokes prefer a sandy, well-drained but fertile soil. A pH slightly on the alkaline side is best. Slightly sandy soil (think: Mediterranean) is ideal. Good drainage is crucial to prevent the roots from rotting, especially in areas where they will be overwintered. However, the soil must also be able to retain water long enough to allow the roots to take it in during hot summers.
When growing artichokes as perennials, it is especially important to amend the soil before planting to ensure they will grow well in future years. If your garden soil is poor, consider growing your artichokes in raised beds.
Water frequently and deeply, one to three times a week. This will keep flower buds fleshy and tender and develop a strong root system that will keep the plants upright.
Temperature and Humidity
This plant prefers warm weather that is relatively dry, such as that found in the Mediterranean region and in California. Excessive heat will cause the plant to bloom prematurely. When grown as perennials, artichokes favor areas with mild winters (50 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and cool, moist summers (70 to 80 degrees F). Very hot soil will make the plants flower too quickly, so apply a thick mulch around the base of the plants to keep the soil cool.
Apply a balanced vegetable plant food every two weeks throughout the growing season.
- 'Big Heart' is a thornless variety that can handle some heat.
- 'Green Globe' is the variety most often grown commercially in California, but it does not adapt as well to less-than-ideal growing conditions.
- 'Imperial Star' is widely adaptable, easy to grow from seed, and bred to be grown as an annual. This is the variety recommended for gardeners in zones 6 and colder.
- 'Purple of Romagna' is a tender Italian heirloom favored by chefs.
- 'Violetto' is Italian heirloom prized for its production of dozens of small side shoots.
How to Grow Artichokes From Seed
Start seeds indoors, at least eight weeks before your last frost date. Harden off the seedlings before planting them outside, but don't wait until all danger of frost has passed—artichokes need to experience a slight chilling (not freezing) before they will set buds. This can be accomplished by putting your plants out in mid-spring and exposing them for a week to 10 days to temperatures of about 50 degrees Fahrenheit or a little lower.
If you try saving seed from your artichokes, they may not grow true, producing plants that vary greatly from your original plant. You will have better success with purchased seed that has been grown under controlled conditions.
Common Pests and Diseases
Few pests attack artichokes. Slugs can be a problem during damp weather, especially with younger, tender leaves. Aphids can also become a nuisance, but they can be hosed off before they take over. Giving the plants enough space for air to flow freely will help minimize aphid problems.
Botrytis, or gray mold, can affect leaves and flower bracts. It is most pervasive on damaged leaves, which will turn brown and then grayish. Remove affected leaves as soon as the disease is apparent. For severe infections, use a fungicide labeled for edible plants, such as neem.
In ideal conditions, established artichoke plants produce buds periodically throughout the year. However, in most areas, buds begin forming in early summer. The center bud will mature first and can be harvested as soon as it has reached about 3 inches in diameter. Harvest while the bracts are still tightly folded and the bud feels firm. You can cut a 1- to 3-inch portion of the stem along with the bud, to make it easier to work with.
After the center bud is cut, side shoots will begin producing smaller buds. Harvest when they are firm and reach about 1 to 3 inches in diameter. Small buds can be extremely tender and flavorful, requiring only a slight heating-through before eating.
If you want to grow artichokes as perennials, adapt your over-wintering methods to your climate:
- Zones 8 and higher: After the last harvest in fall, cut the plants to soil level and cover with 2 to 4 inches of organic mulch, like straw.
- Zones 6 to 7: After the last harvest in the fall, cut the plants down to about 12 to 18 inches. Cover the plant with organic mulch, like straw, leaves, or even compost, and then cover that with a large basket. Mound another layer of straw or leaves over the basket and cover everything with a waterproof tarp.
- Zone 5 and cooler: You can try the method described for zones 6 to 7, or you can pot up your plants, move them to a dark spot that stays cool, but above freezing, and water them occasionally throughout the winter. In the spring, move the pots back outdoors after all danger of frost, and either replant the artichokes in soil or continue to grow them in the containers.
Whatever your zone or method, remove all coverings in spring, as soon as the soil has thawed and no hard frosts are expected.