Pet tortoises are popular pets for many people since they are quiet, cute (especially as hatchlings), and don't shed any fur. But tortoises can live a very long time (anywhere from 50 to over 100 years), so you must be prepared to provide a lifetime of care and consider that your pet might even outlive you if you choose to keep one as a pet.
Pet Tortoise Food
Tortoises can make interesting pets although they can present some challenges due to their size and dietary habits.
Diets vary based on species but all pet tortoises need quite a variety of foods with careful attention paid to the amount of roughage as well as the calcium/phosphorus balances of their food. Some species have voracious appetites and also need a large amount of food. Time for daily food preparation and the costs associated with the amount of food a tortoise eats should be taken into consideration prior to getting a pet tortoise.
Housing Pet Tortoises
Many tortoise species are fairly large and need a decent sized enclosure, preferably outdoors. Because of these preferable housing arrangements, pet tortoises are best suited for areas with milder climates. Depending on the temperatures where the tortoise originates and the area where you live, it may be necessary to bring pet tortoises indoors overnight or during cooler weather (and with the larger tortoises providing indoor housing can be a big challenge).
Some species also need to hibernate which can be very stressful on the tortoise and requires special environmental conditions.
When constructing an outdoor pen make sure it is strong and that you bury your fences if you have a burrowing pet tortoise. Tortoises are quite strong, especially the larger ones, and flimsy enclosures won't hold them for very long.
Some tortoises also climb surprisingly well so they may require a roofed pen. It is also very important to make sure the enclosure keeps predators (including dogs) out. Make sure there are no dangers in the pen including poisonous plants. Provide only shallow water, no sharp objects, and no small, inedible objects which may be accidentally ingested. Also for some tortoises, trying to climb steps or other obstacles can result in them tipping onto their backs which is something that should be avoided. Most pet tortoises will also need some sort of shelter outdoors such as a dog house (many owners often heat these).
Purchasing the Right Pet Tortoise
It is best, as with any reptile, to get a captive bred pet tortoise if at all possible. This isn't easy to do for some species but the capture and shipping conditions can be appalling and result in stressed animals which are then more prone to disease. It is also possible in some areas to locate pet tortoises from rescues.
Any pet tortoise that is new to your household should be checked for parasites and quarantined for a while to ensure that it is healthy (if other tortoises are present). Some species are quite aggressive with other tortoises and if a couple of males are kept in too small of an enclosure fighting may result producing potentially serious injuries around the eyes and on the legs.
Choosing a Pet Tortoise Species
It is vital to choose the right species of pet tortoise for you based on housing needs, environmental needs, and diet requirements. Different species have markedly different adult sizes, temperature and light needs, diets, and some need to hibernate while others do not. Be sure to research each individual species of tortoise you are considering prior to acquiring your new pet. Common pet tortoises include Russian, red-footed (and cherry head varieties), sulcata, Greek and radiated tortoises but there are also many others.
Edited by Adrienne Kruzer, RVT