Juniper trees and shrubs are in the genus Juniperus in the cypress (Cupressaceae) family. These evergreen conifers feature leaves that can either be like needles or scales, and most of the species change from needle form to scale form as they mature. Most junipers offer at least some level of drought resistance.
Many of the common names include the word cedar, though true cedars belong to the genus Cedrus.
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The alligator juniper is named for its distinctive bark that resembles the rough, checkered skin of an alligator. This species can either be a shrub or tree depending on the growing location and conditions.
- Scientific Name: Juniperus deppeana. Synonyms are Juniperus mexicana and Juniperus pachyphloea.
- Other Common Names: Checkerbark juniper, oak-barked juniper, thick-barked juniper, western juniper, mountain cedar
- Native to: Mexico and the Southwestern United States
- USDA Zones: 7 to 9
- Height: Can grow up to 60' tall; generally 20 to 40' tall.
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This juniper is usually found as a large shrub in the Southwest, though it can sometimes grow to be a medium-sized tree in the wild. It features scale-like leaves and reddish-brown cones.
- Scientific Name: Juniperus californica. Some also use Juniperus cedrosiana, Sabina californica, Juniperus pyriformis orJuniperus cerrosianus
- Other Common Names: Desert white cedar
- Native to: California, Baja California, Nevada, Arizona
- USDA Zones: 8 to 10
- Height: 10 to 15' tall; sometimes can be 35' or more
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One variety of the Chinese juniper ('Toruloso') is known as the Hollywood juniper. As it matures it creates an intriguing twisted form that works well as a specimen plant. There are many other varieties composed of different shapes and colors.
- Scientific Name: Juniperus chinensis
- Native to: Japan and China
- USDA Zones: 4 to 9
- Height: The size varies greatly depending on the variety chosen. Many are groundcovers and shrubs.
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As the name suggests, this juniper shrub is commonly found throughout much of the world. It grows well in both alkaline and acidic soils, as well as adapting to many locations such as windy sites.
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- Scientific Name: Juniperus communis
- Other Common Names: Dwarf juniper, prostrate juniper, mountain common juniper, old field common juniper, ground juniper, creeping juniper, carpet juniper
- Native to: North America, Europe, northern Asia, Japan
- USDA Zones: 3 to 8
- Height: The shrub usually matures to around 15' tall; it can sometimes reach 30' tall.
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The creeping juniper lives up to its name and works well as a groundcover. It is very adaptable and can handle many different soils and situations.
- Scientific Name: Juniperus horizontalis
- Other Common Names: Creeping cedar, trailing juniper, creeping Savin juniper
- Native to: Northern United States, Canada, and Alaska
- USDA Zones: 3 to 9
- Height: 1 to 2' tall
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Drooping juniper gets its name because of the way that the branchlets droop down. The reddish-brown or grey bark shreds off in strips.
- Scientific Name: Juniperus flaccida. Juniperus gigantea, Juniperus gracilis and Sabina flaccida are also sometimes seen.
- Other Common Names: Mexican drooping juniper, weeping juniper, weeping cedar, drooping cedar, tascate
- Native to: Texas, Mexico, and Guatemala
- USDA Zones: 8b to 11
- Height: Most trees peak at around 35 to 40' tall.
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As mentioned above, this is the main host for cedar-apple rust disease. This juniper species is especially fragrant, and this quality is sometimes used to repel insects. Some also use this as a Christmas tree.
- Scientific Name: Juniperus virginiana. Another name is Sabina virginiana.
- Other Common Names: Red cedar, red cedar juniper, red juniper, savin, Virginia juniper
- Native to: Eastern Canada, midwestern, southern and eastern United States, Oregon
- USDA Zones: 3 to 9
- Height: 30 to 40' tall
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The Greek juniper is often found growing alongside the stinking juniper (Juniperus foetidissima). These hardy trees can even grow on the sides of rocky cliffs.
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- Scientific Name: Juniperus excelsa
- Other Common Names: Grecian juniper
- Native to: Eastern Mediterranean
- USDA Zones: 'Stricta' grows in 5 - 9
- Height: 20 - 65'+ tall
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One Seed Juniper
Although this plant's cone usually has one seed (inspiring the name), it can produce up to three once in a while. This is a common host for the juniper mistletoe (Phoradendron juniperinum).
- Scientific Name: Juniperus monosperma
- Other Common Names: Oneseed juniper, sabina, single-seeded juniper, cherrystone juniper, red berry juniper
- Native to: Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Mexico
- USDA Zones: 3 to 7
- Height: 10 to 40' tall, sometimes taller in the wild.
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Rocky Mountain Juniper
This is a close relative to the eastern redcedar and thus susceptible to the cedar-apple rust. The Rocky Mountain juniper usually grows in a pyramidal shape. 'Skyrocket' is an especially narrow type that is bluish-green.
- Scientific Name: Juniperus scopulorum
- Other Common Names: Mountain red cedar, Rocky Mountain cedar, Colorado redcedar
- Native to: Western Canada and the United States, Nebraska, Texas and North Dakota
- USDA Zones: 3 to 8
- Height: 30 to 40' tall, though often more of a smaller shrub.
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The city of Cedar City, UT and Cedar Breaks National Monument got their names because of these trees, which grow abundantly in Utah and do well in its alkaline soils. It is also the juniper that you are most likely to run into in Arizona, as well as finding it growing throughout the rest of the western United States.
- Scientific Name: Juniperus osteosperma. Synonyms include Juniperus utahensis and Sabina osteosperma.
- Other Common Names: Bigberry juniper, desert juniper
- Native to: Western United States
- USDA Zones: 3 to 7
- Height: 10 to 25' tall
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The western juniper provides food for a variety of wildlife throughout the year. The wood was used for many different tasks during the pioneer era.
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- Scientific Name: Juniperus occidentalis
- Other Common Names: Sierra juniper
- Native to: California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington
- USDA Zones: 5 to 8
- Height: 15 to 30' tall
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