Meet 12 Species of Juniper Trees and Shrubs

  • 01 of 14

    Members of the Juniperus Genus

    California juniper
    Joshua Tree National Park/Flickr/CC By 1.0

    Juniper trees and shrubs are in the genus Juniperus in the cypress (Cupressaceae) family. These evergreen conifers feature leaves that can either be like needles or scales, and most of the species change from needle form to scale form as they mature. Most junipers offer at least some level of drought resistance.

    Many of the common names include the word cedar, though true cedars belong to the genus Cedrus.

    Junipers may be monoecious or dioecious. While the female fruits appear to be berries, they...MORE are actually fused cones. The cones of the common juniper (Juniperus communis) provide the flavoring for gin.  Juniper fruits are also used as a spice in cooking.

    WARNING: Don't plant a juniper in your yard if there are apple trees in your yard or within a mile or two.  There is a fungus called cedar-apple rust (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae) which makes its home on juniper trees first, then transfers to apples, crabapples, hawthorn, and quince, causing damage to both plants.  The eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) is the usual host on the juniper side, though many of the other species are also susceptible to at least some degree.

    Continue to 2 of 14 below.
  • 02 of 14

    Alligator Juniper

    Alligator Juniper
    Susan Dussaman/Flickr/CC By 2.0

    The alligator juniper is named for its distinctive bark that resembles the rough, checkered skin of an alligator. This species can either be a shrub or tree depending on the growing location and conditions.

    • Scientific Name: Juniperus deppeana. Synonyms are Juniperus mexicana and Juniperus pachyphloea.
    • Other Common Names: Checkerbark juniper, oak-barked juniper, thick-barked juniper, western juniper, mountain cedar
    • Native to: Mexico and the Southwestern United States
    • USDA Zones: 7 - 9
    • Height: Can grow...MORE up to 60' tall; generally 20 - 40' tall.
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  • 03 of 14

    California Juniper

    California Juniper
    Danita Delimont/Getty Image

    This juniper is usually found as a large shrub in the Southwest, though it can sometimes grow to be a medium-sized tree in the wild.  It features scale-like leaves and reddish-brown cones.

    • Scientific Name: Juniperus californica. Some also use Juniperus cedrosianaSabina californicaJuniperus pyriformis orJuniperus cerrosianus
    • Other Common Names: Desert white cedar
    • Native to: California, Baja California, Nevada, Arizona
    • USDA Zones: 8 - 10
    • Height: 10 - 15' tall; sometimes can be 35' or more
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  • 04 of 14

    Chinese Juniper

    Chinese juniper
    Photos Lamontagne/Getty Images

    One variety of the Chinese juniper ('Toruloso') is known as the Hollywood juniper. As it matures it creates an intriguing twisted form that works well as a specimen plant. There are many other varieties in different shapes and colors.

    • Scientific Name: Juniperus chinensis
    • Native to: Japan and China
    • USDA Zones: 4 - 9
    • Height: The size varies greatly depending on the variety chosen. Many are groundcovers and shrubs.
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  • 05 of 14

    Common Juniper

    Common juniper image
    Image by Silversyrpher via Flickr

    As the name suggests, this juniper shrub is commonly found throughout much of the world. It grows well in both alkaline and acidic soils, as well as adapting to many locations such as windy sites.

    • Scientific Name: Juniperus communis
    • Other Common Names: Dwarf juniper, prostrate juniper, mountain common juniper, old field common juniper, ground juniper, creeping juniper, carpet juniper
    • Native to: North America, Europe, northern Asia, Japan
    • USDA Zones: 3 - 8
    • Height: The shrub usually matures to around...MORE 15' tall; it can sometimes reach 30' tall.
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  • 06 of 14

    Creeping Juniper

    Creeping juniper
    F.D.Richards/Flickr/CC By 2.0

    The creeping juniper lives up to its name and works well as a groundcover. It is very adaptable and can handle many different soils and situations.

    • Scientific Name: Juniperus horizontalis
    • Other Common Names: Creeping cedar, trailing juniper, creeping Savin juniper
    • Native to: Northern United States, Canada, and Alaska
    • USDA Zones: 3 - 9
    • Height: 1 - 2' tall
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  • 07 of 14

    Drooping Juniper

    Drooping juniper image
    Image by homeredwardprice via Flickr

    Drooping juniper gets its name because of the way that the branchlets droop down. The reddish-brown or grey bark shreds off in strips.

    • Scientific Name: Juniperus flaccida.  Juniperus gigantea, Juniperus gracilis and Sabina flaccida are also sometimes seen.
    • Other Common Names: Mexican drooping juniper, weeping juniper, weeping cedar, drooping cedar, tascate
    • Native to: Texas, Mexico, and Guatemala
    • USDA Zones: 8b - 11
    • Height: Most trees peak at around 35-40' tall.
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  • 08 of 14

    Eastern Redcedar

    Eastern redcedar image
    Image by dmott9 via Flickr

    As mentioned above, this is the main host for cedar-apple rust disease. This juniper species is especially fragrant, and this quality is sometimes used to repel insects. Some also use this as a Christmas tree.

    • Scientific Name: Juniperus virginiana. Another name is Sabina virginiana.
    • Other Common Names:  Red cedar, red cedar juniper, red juniper, savin, Virginia juniper
    • Native to: Eastern Canada, midwestern, southern and eastern United States, Oregon
    • USDA Zones: 3 - 9
    • Height: 30 - 40' tall
    Continue to 9 of 14 below.
  • 09 of 14

    Greek Juniper

    Photo of Greek juniper
    Image by 300td.org via Flickr

    The Greek juniper is often found growing alongside the stinking juniper (Juniperus foetidissima). These hardy trees can even grow on the sides of rocky cliffs.

    • Scientific Name: Juniperus excelsa
    • Other Common Names: Grecian juniper
    • Native to: Eastern Mediterranean
    • USDA Zones: 'Stricta' grows in 5 - 9
    • Height: 20 - 65'+ tall
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  • 10 of 14

    One Seed Juniper

    One-Seed juniper image
    Image by Paul and Jill via Flickr

    Although this plant's cone usually has one seed (inspiring the name), it can produce up to three once in a while. This is a common host for the juniper mistletoe (Phoradendron juniperinum).

    • Scientific Name: Juniperus monosperma
    • Other Common Names: Oneseed juniper, sabina, single-seeded juniper, cherrystone juniper, red berry juniper
    • Native to: Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Mexico
    • USDA Zones: 3 - 7
    • Height: 10 - 40' tall, sometimes taller in the wild.
    Continue to 11 of 14 below.
  • 11 of 14

    Rocky Mountain Juniper

    Rocky Mountain Juniper
    Tony Frates/Getty Images

    This is a close relative to the eastern redcedar and thus susceptible to the cedar-apple rust. The Rocky Mountain juniper usually grows in a pyramidal shape.  'Skyrocket' is an especially narrow type that is bluish-green. 

    • Scientific Name: Juniperus scopulorum
    • Other Common Names: Mountain red cedar, Rocky Mountain cedar, Colorado redcedar
    • Native to: Western Canada and the United States, Nebraska, Texas and North Dakota
    • USDA Zones: 3 - 8
    • Height: 30 - 40' tall, though often more of a smaller shrub.
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  • 12 of 14

    Utah Juniper

    Utah juniper
    Michael Weber/Getty Images

    The city of Cedar City, UT and Cedar Breaks National Monument got their names because of these trees, which grow abundantly in Utah and do well in its alkaline soils.  It is also the juniper that you are most likely to run into in Arizona, as well as finding it growing throughout the rest of the western United States.

    • Scientific Name: Juniperus osteosperma. Synonyms include Juniperus utahensis and Sabina osteosperma.
    • Other Common Names: Bigberry juniper, desert juniper
    • Native to: Western United...MORE States
    • USDA Zones: 3 - 7
    • Height: 10 - 25' tall
    Continue to 13 of 14 below.
  • 13 of 14

    Western Juniper

    Image of the western juniper
    Image by Comrogues via Flickr

    The western juniper provides food for a variety of wildlife throughout the year. The wood was used for many different tasks during the pioneer era.

    • Scientific Name: Juniperus occidentalis
    • Other Common Names: Sierra juniper
    • Native to: California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington
    • USDA Zones: 5 - 8
    • Height: 15 - 30' tall
    Continue to 14 of 14 below.
  • 14 of 14

    More Evergreen Trees and Shrubs

    Subalpine Fir
    Malcolm Manners/Flickr/CC By 2.0

     If you are looking for color in all seasons, evergreen trees and shrubs are a good choice. Here are some other genera to consider: