Swans are familiar and popular waterfowl, and while there are actually only seven species of swans worldwide, they are spread across five continents (no swans are found in Antarctica or Africa). This makes them some of the most familiar waterfowl in the world, and it can be a fun and realistic goal for enthusiastic birders to add every swan species to a life list.
Why We Know Swans So Well
Though there are only a few swan species, these birds are often imported to aviaries, zoos, botanical gardens and estates around the world, making them even more familiar and recognizable.
In many areas, escaped swans can be seen swimming with wild waterfowl, particularly at urban or suburban ponds, marshes, estuaries or other suitable waterways. Hybrids are not frequent for most swan species, however, and each species its own distinct characteristics.
Swans are often used as symbolic birds for romantic gestures. They're a popular figure at weddings and are often used for Valentine's Day, anniversaries and other romantic holidays. While the swans used for these symbolic purposes are not often a specific species, even the generic swan figure is distinct and easily recognizable as one of these birds.
What Makes Swans Unique
While each swan species is distinct, they all share certain characteristics that make them instantly recognizable as swans. All swans belong to the bird family , along with geese and ducks, but they'll never be confused for their smaller cousins. Swans are unusually large waterfowl, with the smallest swan species, the coscoroba swan, still having an average length of 40 inches (101 cm), a wingspan of 60 inches (152 cm) and a weight of 8-12 pounds (3.6-5.4 kg).
The trumpeter swan is the largest swan species, with an average length of 60 inches (152 cm), a wingspan of 95 inches (241 cm) and a weight of 15-30 pounds (6.8-13.6 kg). Of course, there is much variation among individual swans and males are generally larger and heavier than females.
Their overall size is not the only thing that makes swans unique.
Other than the black swan, these birds have primarily white plumage. Their necks are long and slender, and they often hold their necks in graceful curves or S-shapes, except in flight, when their necks are stretched out straight. Their heads are proportionally small, and their legs are shorter than would be expected for such large birds. In flight, swans can seem ungainly and awkward with their thick, heavy bodies and long necks, but they are graceful and elegant while swimming.
With their spatulate bills, swans are dabblers and will nibble through mud, weeds, grasses and water to satisfy their generally herbivorous diets. They eat grain, seeds, grass, leaves, rootlets and the tender parts of any aquatic plants they can reach. With their long necks, they are effective at foraging in deeper water along shorelines as they reach for submerged vegetation. This allows swans to forage successfully in the same areas as many other waterfowl that cannot reach as far as swans.
The Future of Swans
It is fortunate and reassuring that no types of swans are currently considered threatened or endangered.
That does not mean that conservation measures are not necessary, however. Like all birds, swans are at grave risk from habitat loss, poaching, pollution, invasive predators, disease outbreaks, fishing line tangles and many other threats that can devastate populations. While today's swan populations around the world are healthy and thriving, it would not take great changes for their numbers to plummet. With so few swan species in the world, it is important to take steps to protect them all, or swans may be gone before we realize it, and the only swans we can enjoy are stylized figurines on romantic cakes.
Alphabetical List of Swan Species
Sorted by Common Name
* - Considered threatened or vulnerable due to population decreases and growing survival threats
** - Listed as endangered and in critical danger of extinction if conservation is not implemented
(Classifications by BirdLife International)
- Black Swan (Cygnus atratus)
- Black-Necked Swan (Cygnus melancoryphus)
- Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba)
- Mute Swan (Cygnus olor)
- Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator)
- Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus)
- Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus)