Many older homes and structures in the United States were built with soffits and fascias. These solid wood surfaces, especially when they are freshly painted, provide great accents to the roofline of the home. However, the presence of solid wood surfaces can inhibit the movement of air in the attic space of the home. Ventilated soffits can provide sources of cross ventilation for attic spaces and enhance the performance of passive ventilation systems such as ridge vents.
Installing vents into the solid wood soffits on your home is a simple process that can be accomplished using a variety of products and techniques. The goal behind installing the soffit vents is the same regardless: to provide a source of cross ventilation to allow fresh air in through the soffit vents and allow the stale hot air to ventilate out through the passive vents on the roof.
Before You Begin
Soffits on homes are often used to provide locations for outdoor lighting, speakers, and other accessories. It may be necessary to remove these items before you begin your work. If you encounter these types of obstructions while executing your project, it is recommended that you hire a professional electrician to move them out of your way while the installation is taking place.
Keep in mind that while working on the soffit area of your home, you'll be dealing with a surface that is directly overhead. As a result, you will be looking up as you are working, which will expose your eyes to falling debris and dirt. It is highly recommended that you wear safety glasses or safety goggles to protect your eyes while you are working on overhead surfaces.
Also, you may need to handle or move insulation in your attic. If so, you'll want to wear long pants and a shirt with long sleeves to avoid any of the insulation coming in contact with your skin, as it can be an irritant. You may also want to wear a face mask or respirator to keep you from breathing in any insulation particles.
Finally, this project requires working on a ladder, sometimes at great heights. If you are not comfortable with this kind of work, you may want to hire a professional roofer or handyman to do the job for you.
Before You Begin
Before you begin to cut into your solid wood soffits, it is recommended that you do an interior inspection of your home in the attic space. Here you'll look at the gap between the underside of the roof deck and the top of the framing for the outside bearing wall of the home. This gap must be open to allow air to move freely from the soffit vents into the attic space. If the framing is tight to the underside of the roof deck, the installation of soffit vents may not be applicable for your home.
If the gap between the underside of the deck and the top of the bearing wall is open but filled with insulation, you will need to open the gap up by removing the insulation. Styrofoam baffles are available to install in these gaps. The baffles provide for the free flow of the air while allowing insulation to remain in place.
After determining the ability for air to move freely from the soffit into the attic space, you will measure the interior dimension of the soffit. This will allow you to figure out where to drill the holes in the underside of the soffit once you are outside.
Measure the dimension from the exterior edge of the soffit back to the first framing member. You want to make sure that the holes you will drill will only go through the solid wood soffit panels and not into framing members, or rafters. Your measurements will be transferred to the underside of the soffit panels as you begin the project.
Equipment / Tools
- Power drill
- 1 1/4-inch paddle drill bit
- Tape measure
- Chalk line
- 1/4-inch driver bit
- Tin snips
- Ventilated soffit panels (aluminum or vinyl)
- J-channel strips
- Zip screws
Mark and Drill
On the exterior of the home, use the measurements you made in the attic to snap chalk lines along the length of the soffit to indicate where you will drill holes.
After applying the chalk line, use the cordless drill and the paddle bit to drill holes into the soffit. It is recommended that the holes be drilled at a rate that will allow sufficient airflow to match the flow of passive vents in the attic. For example, when using a 1 1/4-inch paddle drill bit, it is recommended that up to 10 holes be drilled into the soffit area for each linear foot of soffit area.
Install the J-Channel for a Vented Soffit
Now that the holes have been drilled into the soffit area, you will install the soffit panels over them. These panels not only conceal the holes, but they keep insects, birds, and other animals from entering your attic.
Position the J-channel against the exterior of the home’s bearing wall with the longer flange of the J-channel set against the underside of the soffit. Apply zip screws through the flange of the J-channel into the solid wood surface to secure it in place.
The J-channel may be cut with tin snips to adjust it to different lengths. If you are applying the new soffit panels without capping or concealing your fascia boards with aluminum, you will need to apply the J-channel to the exterior edge of the soffit area as well.
Install the Vented Soffit Panels
Once the J-channel has been installed, measure the distance from the interior of the J-channel along the bearing wall of the home and the exterior edge of the soffit. If you are using an additional course of J-channel to finish the leading edge of the soffit panels you will need to allow for room in your measurements to be able to maneuver the soffit panels into place.
Cut the soffit panels to the correct width using tin snips. Install them by sliding each panel into the J-channel so that both leading edges of the panel are nestled into the J-channel groove.
Attach each panel with zip screws through the slotted flange of the soffit panel. Position each subsequent panel into the J-channel and interlock the panels together. Apply fasteners as needed to secure the panel tightly to the solid wood soffit.
Reinstall or Secure Existing Soffit Fixtures
If you removed any fixtures such as spotlights or security cameras from your soffit before beginning the project, reattach them now, or have your electrician return to do the job for you.
This process details the installation of vented panels that are slid into J-channel rails along the entire underside of your soffit. You may instead choose to install individual vents along the soffit. If so, rather than cutting holes into the soffit, you'll cut out rectangles in between the rafters, insert the vents, and screw them into place. You can identify the rafter positions by looking for nailing patterns along the soffit. This is an easier approach, although it won't provide as much ventilation as the method detailed above.