Floating floor is a method of installing a floor rather than a specific type of flooring material.
Individual planks, boards, and in rare cases, tiles, attach to each other, not to the sub-floor. They may attach with glue or by snapping together.
- Laminate Flooring: The prime example of a floating floor is laminate flooring. While laminate flooring can be glued down to the substrate, most if not all laminate is installed on a "floating" basis.
- Luxury Vinyl Flooring: LVF snaps together, board-to-board. It can also be glued to the subfloor.
- Engineered Flooring: Most engineered wood flooring nails or staples down to a plywood substrate. However, a few brands, such as Armstrong's Lock & Fold, can be installed on a floating basis.
- Ceramic Tile: Almost all tile is mortared to a substrate. However, a couple of floating tile floors are available, most notably Soapstone. Rather than mortaring down the tile to the floor, the tiles are attached to each other via interlocking plastic trays. High cost has been the obstacle to this product catching fire in the consumer market.
Solid hardwood is never installed as a floating floor.
Think of It as a Jigsaw Puzzle or Rug
A jigsaw puzzle is a good analogy for understanding floating floors.
With a jigsaw puzzle, pieces connect to each other, not to the table. Serving to keep the puzzle in place: weight of the puzzle; friction contact between puzzle and table; and side-to-side attachment of the individual pieces.
The only difference is that a floating floor has an even more positive "fold and lock" attachment system.
You can also think of a floating floor as a type of rug, but a rug that is made of hard materials. In theory, you should be able to minutely move your floating floor around in order to readjust it, much as you would do with a living room area rug.
In practice, this is impossible for the reasons listed below.
Why Your Floating Floor Will Not Move on You
For ages, floor coverings were attached to their underlying substrates.
Hardwood floors do need to be nailed down to the sub-floor. Ceramic and porcelain tile, too, need to be mortared to their bases.
As do-it-yourself floor installation gained in popularity, methods had to be developed to ease the complexity of installation for homeowners. Development of the floating floor freed novice floor installers from dealing with manual nailing or air compressed floor nailers.
While it seems crazy to install a hard floor that just sits there like a rug, unattached to anything else, it is a method that makes absolute sense because of 3 factors:
- Sheer Weight: Even though individual laminate planks are lightweight, collectively they can weigh several hundred pounds across an entire room.
- Friction: Below laminate is foam or cork underlayment. Friction between flooring planks and underlayment controls lateral movement.
- Joinery: Laminate boards positively snap or glue together.
Pros and Cons
Laminate flooring is contained on three or four sides by walls. An expansion gap is required around the perimeter of laminate flooring, which means that confinement is not one method of keeping the floating floor in place.
- Expansion/Contraction: One advantage of the floating floor method of installation is it allows for the floor to move and expand in response to changes in a room's humidity.
- Easier: Floating floors remove many obstacles to do-it-yourself installation. For instance, nailing down hardwood flooring can be a daunting task for DIYers. But with a floating laminate floor, the floorboards easily attached to each other with no specialized tools such as a floor nailer.
- Limited Materials: One of the disadvantages of a floating floor is that it is thinner and less substantial than flooring that attached to the subfloor.
- Lesser Quality Flooring: Traditionally, floors that install with the floating method have been floors that are less favored by homeowners, such as laminates and vinyl. While these floors still tend to command lower resale value than solid hardwoods, the quality gap between the two is slowly closing over time.
Installing Flooring Over a Floating Floor
It is generally not advisable to install flooring over a floating floor.
Floating floors tend to disassemble easily since they are not attached to the subfloor. Newer laminate floating floors are dry-joined with a fold-and-lock mechanism; they are simple to detach. Older laminate floors may be glued together, plank to plank. But because laminate is made of thin fiberboard, it is easy enough to snap off and break the flooring rather than dealing with the glue.
If you do decide to install a floor covering over your floating floor, you will need to install a hard underlayment such as plywood or cement tile backer prior to laying the floor covering.