What is Confectioners Sugar?

Blueberry tart with confectioners' sugar
Blueberry tart with confectioners' sugar. Andrea Sperling / Getty Images

Confectioners' sugar is a term used in the culinary arts to refer to any of a variety of refined sugars that have been finely ground into a powdery form.

Also known as powdered sugar or 10X sugar, confectioners' sugar is easily dissolved in liquid, which makes it ideally suited for making icings and frostings. Additionally, confectioners' sugar can be used decoratively by lightly dusting it over desserts, baked items, and even fruit.

The word confectioner means someone who makes candies and other sweets, thus confectioners' sugar is widely used in candy making and baking.

Confectioners' sugar is not the same as superfine sugar or bakers' sugar. These products are finer than granulated sugar, but not as fine as confectioners' sugar.

Can You Substitute Sugar for Powdered Sugar?

The short answer: Sometimes. But read on for some good news.

Candy making is one area where making random substitutions isn't a good idea, unless you're certain you know what you're doing. So if you're making candy, you really should use whatever type of sugar the recipe calls for.

Beyond that, recipes that call for powdered sugar instead of granulated sugar usually do so for a reason. 

  • Icings and frostings use confectioners' sugar because it dissolves easily and provides a smooth consistency.
  • Powdered sugar is sometimes used for dusting the tops of desserts. Granulated sugar won't give you the same effect.
  • Some cookie and cake recipes call for powdered sugar, and in general, it's because the goal is a denser consistency. Because of its larger crystals, granulated sugar incorporates more air into doughs than confectioners sugar.

In cases like this, you could substitute granulated sugar, and even though the recipe won't turn out exactly as intended, it will have the proper sweetness as long as you use the same amount of sugar.

But this is important: You must substitute the sugars on a weight basis, not a volume basis. So if a recipe calls for a cup of powdered sugar, and you want to use granulated sugar, you can't just use a cup. You have to know how much a cup of powdered sugar weighs, and then use that much-granulated sugar.

It so happens that a cup of confectioners sugar weighs about 4 ounces (or 113 grams). So you would use 113 grams of granulated sugar. (See: Measuring Ingredients in Baking)

Make Your Own Confectioners' Sugar

And now for the good news. You can actually make your own powdered sugar. 

Because it's made from ordinary sugar, you can make your own confectioners' sugar. All you need is a coffee grinder. Simply place some ordinary granulated sugar in the coffee grinder and pulse until it's a fine powder. Commercial confectioners' sugar contains about 3 percent cornstarch to prevent it from clumping up, but if you're grinding your own and using it right away, clumping shouldn't be an issue.