White baneberry (Actaea pachypoda), also known as doll's eyes, is a popular plant to grow in gardens due to its striking visual interest. In addition to its clusters of tiny white flowers, the plant produces white berries with deep purple "pupils" that give them the appearance of a doll's eyes.
It's best to plant seeds of this slow-growing perennial in late autumn or plant seedlings in the early spring after your last frost. The plant, native to eastern North America, grows to around 2 feet tall on average. And while it can self-seed, it typically doesn’t spread aggressively and overtake other plants.
|Botanical Name||Actaea pachypoda|
|Common Names||White baneberry, doll's eyes|
|Plant Type||Herbaceous perennial|
|Mature Size||1.5 to 2.5 feet tall and 2 to 3 feet wide|
|Sun Exposure||Part shade, shade|
|Soil Type||Moist, well-drained, and humus-rich|
|Soil pH||Less than 6.8|
|Native Areas||Eastern North America (eastern Canada, and the Midwestern and eastern United States)|
|Toxicity||Toxic to humans and all animals except birds|
White Baneberry Care
This plant makes a nice, low-maintenance, ornamental addition to your landscape. In fact, because most wild animals (besides birds) ignore the berries, they tend to stay on the plants for a long time to provide visual interest. White baneberry is a native, not invasive, species, meaning it won’t upset the natural balance of flora. And it’s not that vigorous of a spreader in your garden; it typically stays contained to the area where you want it.
White baneberry is a wildflower that grows naturally in mature forests. Consequently, many people use this plant in their shade gardens, although it can tolerate areas with partial to full shade.
It is tolerant of most soil types as long as it has even moisture and good drainage. However, organically rich, humusy soil is ideal. It also prefers a slightly acidic to neutral soil pH.
The plant's desire for moist soil will require it to receive regular watering, especially during hot, dry summers.
Temperature and Humidity
Its native area extends from Canada down to the state of Georgia and from the East Coast west to Minnesota. It grows best in USDA planting zones 3 to 8 so it can tolerate a wide range of temperatures and humidity conditions.
Planting in rich soil will eliminate the need for any fertilizer during the growing season. A thin layer of mulch applied in late fall or early winter will protect the roots before the frost season.
White Baneberry Varieties
There is only one hybrid variety of white baneberry: Actaea pachypoda 'Misty Blue'. The most notable feature of this cultivar is its bluish-green foliage that retains its color for the entire season.
Red baneberry (Actaea rubra) greatly resembles white baneberry but has red berries. Red baneberry produces its berries a little earlier in the summer than white baneberry.
Another associated flower is black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), also known as black baneberry. Black cohosh does indeed produce black-colored berries and has showier flowers than white or red baneberry. Some cultivars of black cohosh include:
- 'Atropurpurea': Grows 5 to 6 feet tall
- 'Brunette': Features bronze leaves and grows 3 to 4 feet tall
- 'Hillside Black Beauty': Grows 7 feet tall
White baneberry is fairly easy to get rid of because it’s not a vigorous spreader. To remove your plant, first, saturate the soil around it to make it easier to slide out the plant. Then, dig around the plant’s root ball and gently pry it out of the ground. Aim not to break the roots, as any piece of root left in the soil potentially can grow a new plant. Spend some time digging in the soil for remaining roots, and remove any you see. Remember to wear gardening gloves for this process, and carefully dispose of all the pieces of the plant.
To ensure no new baneberry plants sprout up, you can cover the site with a piece of cardboard or tarp for at least one full growing season. That will smother any new plant that tries to grow. After that, the site should be free of baneberry.
How to Grow White Baneberry From Seed
Start your seeds indoors in late winter, making sure to keep the soil moist until the seeds germinate. Once transplanted outside, the plant won't produce flowers (or fruit) until its second growing season.
Little care is needed to safely protect plants over the winter. The green stems of spring plants transition to a reddish color in the summer and autumn. The plant's berries remain on all the way through into autumn. In the winter, the plant dies above the surface, but its roots remain underground to regrow it for the next season.